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Научно-исследовательская экспедиция Анатолия Цирульникова по северо-востоку Китая

По приглашению Китайского Северо-Восточного нормального университета и Института развития сельского образования Китая с 14-26 сентября профессор Анатолий Цирульников, академик РАО, главный научный сотрудник ФИРО РАНХиГС, провел научно-исследовательскую экспедицию по северо-востоку Китая, а также принял участие в международной конференции, посвященной вопросам развития сельского образования.

Событие

Анатолий Цирульников об экспедиции: «Нас интересовало не только образование от детсада до университета, но социокультурное окружение, среда - хозяйствование, культура, история, быт, национальные меньшинства, сельские поля и урбанизация, народные мастера и промышленники, нефтяные вышки на рисовом поле и заповедники, серые земли, куда прилетают с Байкала и со всего мира белые журавли. Серые земли, на которых ничего вроде не растет, солончаки и озера, но которые оказываются источником жизни и процветания страны (для их сохранения правительством Китая выделено более миллиарда юаней). 

Мы встречались с самыми разными людьми - детьми, родителями, учителями, профессорами и студентами, крестьянами, народными мастерами и промышленниками, деятелями культуры и учеными, управленцами.

О результатах экспедиции, организованной китайскими коллегами, пока говорить рано, есть удивительные достижения, но и острейшие нарастающие проблемы сельского образования, села и страны в целом, - проблемы и явления, порождаемые стремительной урбанизацией Китая (например, по данным китайских исследователей, зафиксировано около 100 млн. мигрирующих и, в конце концов, оказывающихся в сложных социально-психологических условиях интернатов детей). Внимание правительства Китая сегодня особенно усиливается к селу, сорок лет назад ставшему источником экономических реформ.

Мы обсуждали с китайскими коллегами российский опыт, образцы и способы решения сходных проблем (которые порождены, впрочем, разными причинами)».

После экспедиции Анатолий Цирульников выступил на международной конференции «Rural Children Development from Multimensional Perspectives» с докладом-презентацией («Sociocultural approach to education in rural areas. Education as a tool of the solution of vital problems of local communities and development of rural children») и лекцией для студентов и преподавателей северо-восточного университета на тему «Образование как инструмент решения жизненных проблем местных сообществ».

В заключении поездки состоялась торжественная церемония вручения дипломов «Почетный приглашенный профессор Китайского нормального Северо-Восточного университета». Такой диплом получили три профессора Стэнфордского университета США Eric Hanushek, Scoot D.Rozele, Prashant Rumar Loyalka и два представителя Российской Федерации – академик, главный научный сотрудник РАНХиГС А.М. Цирульников  и  профессор МГУ А.В.Боровских.

По материалам поездки Анатолием Цирульниковым планируется написание и публикация в России и Китае серии очерков с примерным названием «Белые журавли на серой земле. Взгляд из России на китайскую деревню», что продолжит и укрепит сотрудничество и добрые взаимоотношения образовательных систем России и Китая.

 

Лекция Анатолия Цирульникова

Anatolii Tsirulnikov, Rassion Federetion

Sociocultural approach to education in rural areas.  Education as a tool of the solution of vital problems of local communities and development of rural children

In our report, we will tell about specific projects which help solve different vital problems in rural communities, the development of children living in rural areas. We call these projects sociocultural educational projects.

But at first some general information.

Recently 50 countries of the world have tried to carry out modernization. But only 5 countries have succeeded. Only 5 countries did it. Japan, «young dragons» of South-Eastern Asia. Today China is going this direction, Russia and BRICS countries (Brazil, India) are making some local steps.

Why have only 5 countries of 50 managed that?

We want to draw your attention: all countries that achieved success in modernization used such formula of socio-cultural educational modernization:general-civilisational qualitative changes on a national basis.

At the heart of this modernization type lies the sociocultural approach to education. What is it?

I will list with no comments, - the main signs of sociocultural approach.

Sociocultural approach is a different view of education:

  • What seemed minor: (regional, economical-geographical, cultural, ethno-religious features, local experience) becomes essential
  • Socio-cultural approach is the orientation to:
  • Difficulty and variety of education
  • Development of existing and local experience instead of utopian projecting of general new order
  • Self-organisation and self-development of educational communities
  • Sociocultural approach is modernization of values, social organization and forms of culture, but not technocratic technologies
  • Sociocultural approach is the use of education as an instrument of solving vital problems of local communities

For the sociocultural approach  realization teachers and managers use special methods, sociocultural techniques. In rural areas a big variety of educational organization   resulted. They are different educational complexes, tutor institute, travelling and nomadic school, different educational networks and so forth. We specially train village teachers and business administrators to detect and analyse sociocultural situation of a given school, to choose or design its development strategy and model.

A sociocultural educational project is a stage of this work.

Now we are going to tell briefly about some sociocultural educational projects in rural areas of Russia.

Yakutia – is big part of Russian, it occupies one fifth of the Russian territory. The climate here is severe, it can be 40 above zero in summer and up to 60 or more below zero in winter. There are some projects from Yakima.

 

Pproject 1.

The village where we carried out the project is called Bayaga. Many famous people – public figures, writers, scientists, teachers came from here.     

I wold like to tell about Boris Mandar, he is a blacksmith, an artist, a philosopher, a teacher, a folk craftsman teaching children blacksmith craft, who has brought up many folk craftsmen and craftswomen.

Boris Mandar has got his own original educational concept the local school is based on. But the place Mandar and his students and colleagues are living in is not a developed city, it`s a usual village in taiga. How should one develop the village and the children? Mandar, his colleagues and students went the following way.

The folk craftsman Mandar and his colleagues, students and teachers did the following: they combined a secondary village school with the schools of folk craftsmen, where children and adults learn different crafts – metal and woodwork, national sewing, horse hair decorations and other applied arts. As a result, some new job places eventually appeared in the village: a small hotel and guest houses, taxi and cargo service, «Centre of applied crafts, intellectual culture and creation». Now the people from this and other villages and districts are making a huge “Urasa” using modern technologies – an old, cone-shaped Yakutian home from birchbark. It is a unique construction, there are none left already, the remains have been preserved in Yakutsk or New York museums. Soon this building will host young people`s engagements, birth celebrations and other solemn ceremonies, passing the folk craft secrets to children and adults.

This way the intellectual culture is being revived, the normal village social infrastructure is growing.

 

Project 2.

This is Arctic project.  

Here is Olenek, the district where the Evenk reindeer breeders live. We set off to the expedition there – to study the situation.

White silence, like in Jack London`s book…

There are 4 settlements in the area with the population of about 4000 people. The distance between the settlements is from 300 to 600 kilometres. The mother tongue of the Evenks is dying. What should we do?  In each of the settlements we created our own project with the teachers, locals and students. In Olenek we started not with school but kindergartenю Teachers and nursery teachers visited cattle camps. Old games and toys have almost died, but the old timers told how they had looked. The toys were collected part by part, reproduced, modernized. With the help of toys and folk games the native speech began to revive and the kindergarten eventually became the centre of the Evenk language and culture revival.

In another part of this area, where we got in such metal trough attached to the “Buran” snow tractor, a project of a nomadic school was born. The problem was as follows. The whole life of the Evenks is the reindeer breeding, nomadism. But children want to be with parents and parents – with children. If children live in the orphanage, it will be a break of the generation bridge, the end of the Evenks` life. But to leave children in a cattle camp is impossible either, they have to go to school. We had to find an optimal solution.

Thus, we combined a regular school with a nomadic one: half of the school year children stay in the settlement, another half they live in houses in the tundra and move with a deer herd, parents and a teacher. In this particular case the teacher was the wife of the reindeer breeder headman. Being a primary teacher she is a tutor for teenagers and an advising assistant for senior students. In a nomadic school children have an individual education plan of different subject orientation (it`s not necessary that everyone becomes a reindeer breeder, there are guys, majoring in design, journalism etc). Thus, a junction of a stationary and a nomadic school took place, in which case new information technologies are used (where Internet is availiable).

In the third settlement the Lena expedition was mining for gold. On its basis the dual-study project was realized - it is a German model of combining theory with practice, but we adjusted it to local conditions. In the fourth settlement lived the yakuts who used to do horse breeding but then lost it. In that place we opened an agricultural school which helped revive the traditional horse breeding.

Then, together with the Yakut and the Evenk colleagues we joined all these four knots in a network – thus appeared a project "Network Model of a Municipal Education System as Means of Educational Support of Social and Economic Development of the Area".

Therefore, by means of education the important problem of the area`s  life and development was solved, and rural children participated in it.

In general, our experience proves that rural children develop well when they are engaged with something serious, solve community`s vital  problems together with adults. Sometimes they even come up with ideas that adults never have in mind.

 

Project 3.

Here is one more northern project. Some years ago, we started on a expedition along the Arctic Ocean. We moved on a snow-tractor, on sledge, on December polar night when it is dark all day long, at 65°C below zero. We reached one settlement named Russkoye Ustye with 150 people and a small school. It is a very interesting settlement. Some centuries ago, during the reign of Ivan the Terrible, these people`s ancestors escaped from outrages sailed away in boats. Some of them sailed to America and some settled on the Arctic shore. There lived the peoples that didn`t speak Russian. That`s why the refugees` descendants preserved the 16th century speech, one can hear it in modern language. Like their ancestors, people from this settlement go fishing (there is still a fishing clan in the settlement), set animal traps, which are called by an ancient word meaning “mouth”. The school in Russkoye Ustye is great too, with a small museum where different unique things are kept: old maps, sketches, photos of famous travellers who got into this place. One teacher wrote a history textbook based on local data. 5 issues of it were published, 3 of which are in the settlement administration, 1 was presented to me by the teacher.

All in all, the people are living. But there is a problem. From school physics course you should remember the Coriolis`s force, it is very strong near the poles and destructs river banks. So the bank is falling here and the Indigirka river might carry the settlement to the Arctic Ocean. It`s very dangerous and over the past centuries the settlement has changed its location several times. What`s the solution? The school students who go fishing and hunting with parents and notice everything, suggested several options. One is a bit funny: to have skiing houses so that people could move from place to place. But it`s not just an idle imagining, experts proved it to be possible. Another option is to widen one of the watercourses, thanks to which the riverbed will change and the bank will not fall.

The children were supported by local officials, money was found, scientists came on stage – a very interesting project is being born. I want to show you some photos of this place without any comments.

 

Project 4.

Sociocultural projects with rural children`s participation are being carried out in different Russian areas. We talked about the North, but look what children are doing in the Southern parts. This is Kalmykia. The Kalmyks` ancestors are the Oirats. During the Chinghiskhan time they came to the ancient Rus` from the Western Mongolia. Perhaps you know that the Oirats live in China, there is a national Oirat region.

And these guys live and study in Russia in the steppe zone near the Volga river. Like everywhere else, these children and their parents have vital problems that are to be solved. In one place, for example, a very dangerous bridge across the river might fall down. The children together with the physics teacher took into account different factors, did some calculations and found out that this place needs a bridge of a different design and today it is being built.

And in the place where there is another settlement, the great Russian river Volga is getting shallow, islands appear on it and the guys are measuring and studying them and looking for solutions together with adults. And this is a real desert like Sakhara, which has appeared where the steppe used to be. Thus a project started with the participation of students, teachers, experts from the reserve, scientists – how to deal with the desert, what plants to plunge, how to slow desertification etc.

 

At the end of my report I`d like to sum up. So, as the record shows, education can be an instrument of solving vital problems of rural communities. Sociocultural projects where rural children participate, solving vital problems, serious adult matters – are the most important resource of their development.

 

 

         

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